A Flood

A Flood Floods are one of the most common hazards in the United States. Flood effects can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and multiple states. However, all floods are not alike. Some floods develop slowly, sometimes over a period of days. But flash floods can develop quickly, sometimes in just a few minutes and without any visible signs of rain. Flash floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, mud, and other debris and can sweep away most things in its path. Overland flooding occurs outside a defined river or stream, such as when a levee is breached, but still can be destructive. Flooding can also occur when a dam breaks, producing effects similar to flash floods. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Even very small streams, gullies, creeks, culverts, dry...
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What to do During a Fire

What to do During a Fire If your clothes catch on fire, you should: Stop, drop, and roll – until the fire is extinguished. Running only makes the fire burn faster. To escape a fire, you should: Check closed doors for heat before you open them. If you are escaping through a closed door, use the back of your hand to feel the top of the door, the doorknob, and the crack between the door and door frame before you open it. Never use the palm of your hand or fingers to test for heat – burning those areas could impair your ability to escape a fire (i.e., ladders and crawling). Test the door before entering a room! Hot Door Do not open. Escape through a window. If you cannot escape, hang a white or light-colored sheet outside the window, alerting fire fighters to your presence. Cold Door Open slowly and ensure fire and/or smoke is not blocking your escape route. If your escape route is blocked, shut the door...
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What to do Before a Fire

What to do Before a Fire The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family, and your property in the event of a fire: Smoke Alarms Install smoke alarms. Properly working smoke alarms decrease your chances of dying in a fire by half. Place smoke alarms on every level of your residence. Place them outside bedrooms on the ceiling or high on the wall (4 to 12 inches from ceiling), at the top of open stairways, or at the bottom of enclosed stairs and near (but not in) the kitchen. Test and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least once a year. Replace smoke alarms once every 10 years. Escaping the Fire Review escape routes with your family. Practice escaping from each room. Make sure windows are not nailed or painted shut. Make sure security gratings on windows have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside. Consider escape ladders if your residence has more than one...
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Fact About Earthquakes

Facts about Earthquakes Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the year and at any time of the day or night. Smaller earthquakes often follow the main shock. An earthquake is caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse buildings and bridges; disrupt gas, electric, and phone service; and sometimes trigger landslides, avalanches, flash floods, fires, and huge, destructive ocean waves (tsunamis). Most earthquake-related injuries result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects. Several thousand shocks of varying sizes occur annually in the United States, and 70 to 75 damaging earthquakes occur throughout the world each year. All 50 states and all U.S. territories are vulnerable to earthquakes. Where earthquakes have occurred in the past, they will happen again. California experiences the most frequent damaging earthquakes; however, Alaska experiences the greatest number of large earthquakes—most located in uninhabited areas. Earthquakes occur most frequently west of the Rocky Mountains, although historically the most violent...
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What to do During an Earthquake

What to Do During an Earthquake Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some earthquakes are actually foreshocks and a larger earthquake might occur. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and if you are indoors, stay there until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe. Also read Ten Earthquake Survival Tips If indoors DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building. Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture. Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that...
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What to do Before an Earthquake

What to Do Before an Earthquake Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning. Identifying potential hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake. Repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling, and following local seismic building standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes. Six Ways to Plan Ahead 1. Check for Hazards in the Home Fasten shelves securely to walls. Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches. Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds, couches, and anywhere people sit. Brace overhead light fixtures. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks. Secure a water heater by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor. Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of...
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The Importance of Shelter

The Importance of Shelter Shelter is necessary to give shade, to repel wind and rain and to keep in warmth. Sleep and adequate rest are essential and the time and effort you put into making your shelter comfortable will make them easier to get. If you are the victim of a plane crash or a vehicle breakdown, either may provide a shelter or materials from which one can be built – but if there is fire or the threat of the fuel tank exploding, wait until it has burned out before attempting salvage. If you are an unequipped victim of an accident, are trapped by unexpected fog or caught by nightfall in terrain where it is not safe to move around, or if exhaustion or injury prevents you from going further, you may have to make do with any natural shelter that you can find for the night, or until you can more fully assess the situation. In this case, virtually any protection...
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Animal Products

Animal Products All animals provide skins. Their condition will depend on how carefully they were removed, the way the animal was killed (which may have damaged the skin), the age of the animal and time of year (Mating season, molt and change of season can affect the amount and color of fur in some species). Common defects are due to parasites, disease, malnutrition and scars from fight injuries. SKINS AND FURS Snakes, lizards, crocodiles and other reptiles all provide excellent skins. So do large birds such as ostriches. Some aquatic mammals, seals and their relations, are fur-bearing, like land mammals, and whales and dolphins have strong hides. Sharks also have a hide, instead of scales like most other fish. Birds can be skinned with the feathers attached and used to make warm clothing or bed covers. Skin is a source of food and in circumstances of acute shortage can be eaten, even after being preserved and used for clothing, but it is very...
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