Cold Weather Survival
It is more difficult for you to satisfy your basic water, food, and shelter needs in a cold environment than in a warm environment. Even if you have the basic requirements, you must also have adequate protective clothing and the will to survive. The will to survive is as important as the basic needs. There have been incidents when trained and well-equipped individuals have not survived cold weather situations because they lacked the will to live. Conversely, this will has sustained individuals less well-trained and equipped.
You must not only have enough clothing to protect you from the cold, you must also know how to maximize the warmth you get from it. For example, always keep your head covered. You can lose 40 to 45 percent of body heat from an unprotected head and even more from the unprotected neck, wrist, and ankles. These areas of the body are good radiators of heat and have very little insulating fat. The brain is very susceptible to cold and can stand the least amount of cooling. Because there is much blood circulation in the head, most of which is on the surface, you can lose heat quickly if you do not cover your head.
There are six basic principles of survival to follow to keep warm. An easy way to remember these basic principles is to use the acronym COLDER –
C – Keep clothing clean.
O – Avoid overheating.
L – Wear clothes loose and in layers.
D – Keep clothing dry.
E – Examine clothing for wear.
R – Keep your clothing repaired when you are in a survival situation.
C – Keep clothing clean. This principle is always important for sanitation and comfort. In winter, it is also important from the standpoint of warmth. Clothes matted with dirt and grease loses much of their insulation value. Heat can escape more easily from the body through the clothing’s crushed or filled up air pockets.
O – Avoid overheating. When you get too hot, you sweat and your clothing absorbs the moisture. This affects your warmth in two ways: dampness decreases the insulation quality of clothing, and as sweat evaporates, your body cools. Adjust your clothing so that you do not sweat. Do this by partially opening your parka or jacket, by removing an inner layer of clothing, by removing heavy outer mittens, or by throwing back your parka hood or changing to lighter headgear. The head and hands act as efficient heat dissipaters when overheated.
L – Wear your clothing loose and in layers. Wearing tight clothing and foot gear restricts blood circulation and invites cold injury. It also decreases the volume of air trapped between the layers, reducing its insulating value. Several layers of lightweight clothing are better than one equally thick layer of clothing, because the layers have dead-air space between them. The dead-air space provides extra insulation. Also, layers of clothing allow you to take off or add clothing layers to prevent excessive sweating or to increase warmth.
D – Keep clothing dry. In cold temperatures, your inner layers of clothing can become wet from sweat and your outer layer, if not water repellent, can become wet from snow and frost melted by body heat. Wear water repellent outer clothing, if available. It will shed most of the water collected from melting snow and frost. Before entering a heated shelter, brush off the snow and frost. Despite the precautions you take, there will be times when you cannot keep from getting wet. At such times, drying your clothing may become a major problem. On the march, hang your damp mittens and socks on your rucksack. Sometimes in freezing temperatures, the wind and sun will dry this clothing. You can also place damp socks or mittens, unfolded, near your body so that your body heat can dry them. In a campsite, hang damp clothing inside the shelter near the top, using drying lines or improvised racks. You may even be able to dry each item by holding it before an open fire. Dry leather items slowly. If no other means are available for drying your boots, put them between your sleeping bag shell and liner. Your body heat will help to dry the leather.
E – Examine clothing for wear. Survival in a cold weather environment becomes more challenging if your clothing is not performing properly. Damage to your clothing will lead to loss of heat and could let moisture in. Examine your clothing regularly for any areas that may begin to wear. Knees, elbows, and footwear are susceptible to early possible damage. Cuts and rips in your clothing can easily take place during casual movements through wilderness or over rocky terrain.
R – Keep your clothing repaired when you are in a survival situation. If wear and damage occurs to your clothing or footwear, you must find ways to repair these items as soon as possible. A small sewing/repair kit can be added to a cold weather survival kit; or backpack when on hiking or camping trips. If a small sewing kit is not available, a fish hook and fishing line can be used as a replacement for needle and thread. Equipment to keep in mind when considering repairs: tent repair kits, fishing equipment, shoe or boot laces, glue, etc… Be creative and always be thinking SURVIVAL.
A heavy, down-lined sleeping bag is a valuable piece of survival gear in cold weather. Ensure the down remains dry. If it becomes wet, it loses a lot of its insulation value. If you do not have a sleeping bag, you can make one out of parachute cloth or similar material and natural dry material, such as leaves, pine needles, or moss. Place the dry material between two layers of the material.
Other important survival items are a knife; waterproof matches in a waterproof container, preferably one with a flint attached; a durable compass; map; watch; waterproof ground cloth and cover; flashlight; binoculars; dark glasses; fatty emergency foods; food gathering gear; and signaling items. My favorite cold weather item is the Wool Blanket, this is the only form of cloth that can be completely wet and still insulate and keep you warm.
Remember, a cold weather environment can be very harsh. Give a good deal of thought to selecting the right equipment for survival in the cold. If unsure of an item you have never used, test it in an “overnight backyard” environment before venturing further. Once you have selected items that are essential for your survival, do not lose them after you enter a cold weather environment.
– Use the information listed above as a guideline for safety. Always research and prepare for dangerous weather patterns in your area. Research what is common in your region and what times of the year dangerous weather patterns are more common.
Adapted from the U.S. Army Survival Manual & Air Force Cold Weather Survival Guide