Bleeding

Bleeding Sever bleeding can cause death quickly so you must act fast. Grab a bandage, gauze pad, piece of cloth, or whatever is handy and apply firm pressure. Raise the limb above the body and if necessary apply pressure to the arterial pressure point on the inside of the arm or groin, which ever applies. If the cloth becomes soaked in blood add more and reapply pressure, do not remove the soaked bandage. In extreme cases a tourniquet may need to be applied. To make a tourniquet, IF needed (A tourniquet MUST be a last resort! The casualty should be at risk of bleeding to death before you consider applying a tourniquet.) first fold a piece of cloth or bandana into a triangle. Roll the triangle until you have a long “tail”. Tie the roll between the injury and the heart as close to the wound as possible but above the knee or elbow using an overhand knot, the first step in...
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Bites and Stings

Bites and Stings Insect bites are usually more painful than dangerous, (unless the person stung is allergic to certain types of stings), i.e. bee stings. To treat stings, carefully remove the stinger if present and if available apply a cold compress. Bandage like a scrape or cut. A small amount of swelling is normal. Ticks present another issue. To remove, gently twist and pull. After the tick is off carefully inspect the site to insure the head is also gone. If the head is still present remove it with a pair of tweezers or a small knife. A small amount of swelling is normal. Unfortunately, there isn’t much you can do with a venomous bite or sting in a survival setting. Snakebites are often defensive and not venomous. Nevertheless, tell the victim to remain calm, treat for shock, and dress the wound site; you may want to gently squeeze the site to attempt to remove any excess venom and discard immediately. Support the wound...
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Hypothermia and Hyperthermia

Hypothermia and Hyperthermia There are only a few signs of hypothermia; shivering violently, disoriented, and unstable on his or her feet. To treat, immediately make shelter and place the victim inside. Strip off the victim’s cold wet clothing and place him or her in their sleeping bag, bedroll or any other form of insulation to assist with warming the victim. It is often necessary for another person to also remove their clothes and get into the victims bedroll too, the body contact will raise the victim’s core temperature. If the victim’s body is still cold to the touch and they stop shivering take emergency action immediately, they are on the verge of death. The signs of hyperthermia, also known as heat stroke, are shallow breathing, nausea or vomiting, dilated pupils, and dizziness. Also the victim’s face may become pale and they may break into a cold sweat. To treat heatstroke you need to loosen the victim’s clothing, begin fanning them, and place them...
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Remove Casualty from Danger

REMOVE CASUALTY FROM DANGER First reduce any further danger to the casualty or yourself by moving them to safety – away from a burning vehicle or building. In the case of a road accident, stop the traffic. With electrocution, switch off the current. If you can’t, stand on dry non-conductive material and push or lever the patient from the power source with a dry non-conductive pole or stick BEFORE touching them. If gas or poisonous fumes are threatening, turn them off at source and take casualties to fresh air. There is always a risk in moving patients with unknown injuries but, if they are further threatened, they must be moved to have any chance of surviving. People with spinal injuries are at greatest risk when moved – the spinal cord could be severed. The only safe way to move them requires several people. UNCONSCIOUS CASUALTIES If a person is unconscious first check whether they are breathing and begin artificial respiration immediately if necessary. Check for...
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Understanding First Aid

Understanding First Aid When no professional medical help is available, survivors have to undertake medical tasks which should normally be left to those with special training. Traditional first-aid procedures are designed to cope with minor problems and to sustain a seriously injured person until they can receive expert treatment. However, if there is no possibility of outside help in time to save a life, the survivor may sometimes have to take drastic measures. Some of the advice given in this section is intended ONLY for such circumstances. In the treatment of diseases and disorders the experience of centuries of herbal treatments and natural remedies can be put to good use, when no prepared drugs are available – or to reserve supplies for more serious need. Herbal medicines given here use only simple methods of extraction and preparation. FIRST AID Maintaining health is of primary importance to the survivor. Do not take any unnecessary risks which could lead to injury. Aim at a varied and balanced diet...
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Life Expectancy in the Desert

Life Expectancy in the Desert Life expectancy depends upon the water available and your ability to protect the body from exposure to the sun to minimize perspiration. Allow a slight negative balance. Drink 1.5 liters (2½pt) for every 2 liters (3½pt) lost and then drink at the rate the body is sweating. Efficiency is then impaired little and no water is wasted. Less fluid will not result in less sweating. Sweating is a cooling mechanism, not a way of losing moisture. If drink more fluid than needed it will be excreted and used to no purpose. Without water you will last about 2½ days at 48°C (118°F) if you spend the whole time resting in the shade, though you could last as long as 12 days if the temperature stays below 21°C (70°F). If you are forced to walk to safety, the distance you cover will relate directly to water available. With none, a temperature of 48°C (118°F), walking only at night, resting all day,...
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Ten Commandments of Desert Survival

TEN COMMANDMENTS OF SURVIVAL IN THE DESERT WHEN LOST OR STRANDED 1. Hold on to a Survival Attitude – Your most valuable asset in any life threatening situation is a positive mental attitude. If you aren’t certain you can live – you will die. 2. Stay where you are – Stay Calm – If you are driving a vehicle, remain with it. Relocate only to reach safety and water. 3. Move only when Absolutely Necessary and Only at Night – If your position is unendurable, change your location during the cooler night hours. Move only when you know you can get there safely by doing the following: a. Leave a clear trail with notes and directional signs. b. On the note, give your name, date, time, direction and reason you are going. c. Proceed in a specific direction, change your line of movement only after you have left a sign or marker. d. Go slowly and carefully – beware of overexertion. 4. Conserve Your Sweat, Not Your Water –...
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Clothing in the Desert

Clothing in the Desert Clothing helps reduce fluid loss and gives protection from sunburn – as well as warmth at night and a barrier against insect bites and thorns. In the desert it should be light and loose-fitting, with air space between the garments and the body to provide insulation. Copy the flowing, layered garments of the Arab world. Trousers give more protection from insects than shorts (and guard against serious burns on the legs if forced into daytime exposure). Cover the head and feet. The flowing, layered garments worn by desert dwellers provide excellent examples of clothing appropriate for expeditions into arid climates. Light and loose-fitting clothes protect from sunburn and fluid loss, while also allowing for cooling pockets of air. HEADGEAR Any hat with a piece of cloth attached to the back will give some protection to the head and back of the neck but it is better to copy the headgear of desert peoples. You need a piece of material about 120cm...
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